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JUL-AUG 2018

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INTECH JULY/AUGUST 2018 11 COVER STORY logic controllers (PLCs), distributed control sys- tems (DCSs), machine controllers, robots, process controllers, and other devices that monitor and control physical production. OT in many orga- nizations also encompasses supervisory control and data acquisition systems, human-machine interface displays, historians, and remote termi- nal units. These systems typically communicate using industrial control networks, such as Mod- bus, EtherNET/IP, Profinet, and EtherCAT. More recent ly wireless sensors communicate using ISA100, WirelessHART, or proprietary methods. What is IT? An early definition of information technology ap- peared in the November 1958 Harvard Business Review article, "Management in the 1980s" by Harold J. Leavitt and Thomas L. Whisler: "The new technology does not yet have a single established name. We shall call it information technology. It is composed of several related parts. One includes techniques for processing large amounts of information rapidly, and it is epitomized by the high-speed computer. A second part centers around the application of statistical and mathematical methods to decision-making problems; it is represented by techniques like mathematical programing, and by methodologies like operations research. A third part is in the offing, though its applications have not yet emerged very clearly; it consists of the simulation of higher-order thinking through computer programs." This is still a pretty good fundamental definition. It includes the term operations research. A broad definition of operations research is determining the maximum profit, performance, yield or mini- mum loss, risk, or cost of some real-world objective. Industrial engineering and operations research applied to industrial and process manufacturing combine two disciplines focused on the operation of complex systems to develop better systems and operational procedures. Today's new technologies are enabling achievement of these goals. Integrated manufacturing Manufacturing and process industries have been pursuing the concept of integrating the entire busi- ness, including product design, procurement, sup- ply chain management, production, maintenance, and outbound logistics, for a long time. The idea of computer integrated manufacturing has been a vision since the 1970s. It is defined as the integra- tion of the total manufacturing enterprise by using integrated systems and data communication cou- pled with new managerial philosophies to improve organizational and personnel efficiency. In the 1970s and 1980s, some large automotive and aero- space manufacturers implemented a small num- ber of projects, but the systems and technology at that time were cumbersome, expensive, and unre- liable. Another major challenge was the integration of components from different suppliers, including PLCs, DCSs, CNC machine tools, conveyors, and robots using different communications protocols. There were also competing data interchange and protocol standards between the U.S. and Europe, which was counterproductive. Industry 4.0, smart manufacturing, et al. More recently, a progressive line of thinking has developed in applying technology to improve manufacturing with the integration of all aspects of production and commerce across company boundaries for greater efficiency. It is exemplified by Industry 4.0, smart manufacturing, Industrial Internet of Things, and other initiatives pursuing a holistic automation, business information, and manufacturing execution architecture. The goals are significantly higher productivity, efficiency, and self-managing production processes where people, machines, equipment, logistics systems, and work in process communicate and cooperate with each other directly. This vision includes new technologies and architectures to achieve low-cost mass production efficiencies for make-to-order manufacturing of quantity one. Single view IT/OT convergence promotes a single view of an enterprise's information and gives every per- son, machine, sensor, PLC, process controller, actuator, motor control center, and other device accurate data and information in an actionable context at the right time to improve operational efficiencies and lower production costs. Decision in real time Decisions will be made in real time with higher levels of confidence, because more information will be available regarding the event or condition. Management of an event in an IT/OT converged architecture will execute as a closed-loop process, optimizing the factors of production. This includes FAST FORWARD l The integration of IT and OT is a significant change. l Changes are challenging and empowering automation professionals to deliver more value. l Worldwide competition, coupled with pervasive new technologies, is driving change.

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