JUL-AUG 2018

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26 INTECH JULY/AUGUST 2018 WWW.ISA.ORG SYSTEM INTEGRATION Benefit Description Improved safety performance Automated procedures improve safety performance by providing: • consistent execution of correct procedures, reducing abnormal situations • improved responses to abnormal situations • increased operator awareness, including alarm significance • reduced personnel exposure Improved reliability Automated procedures reduce unintended damage to process equipment and aid in maintain- ing maximum production rates, minimizing recovery time after upsets, and avoiding shutdowns. (This also applies to equipment maintenance procedures, though not in this scope). Reduced losses from operator errors Automating procedures helps standardize them. A standardized approach reduces the likelihood of human error, which may contribute to or exacerbate an abnormal condition. It may also lessen the time to recover from abnormal conditions, so losses can be decreased. Increased production by improving startups and shutdowns Operations benefit from faster, safer, and more consistent startups and shutdowns by automat- ing the procedural steps. Increased production and quality via efficient transitions Many operations require process transitions from one condition to another during normal oper- ating conditions. Those changes include, but are not limited to: • raw material grade changes • finished product specification changes • intermediate product specification changes • execution of new target operating conditions Mishandled transitions occur frequently in the industry and can lead to major production losses. Automating procedures reduces transition times and variability. Reduced losses through improved responses to disturbances Automated procedures can be prepared for expected disturbances, reducing the time to return operations to desired steady-state conditions. Such procedures can also reduce the risk that such disturbances could escalate into an abnormal situation without careful operator intervention. In addition, correctly handling abnormal conditions may enable a process to run at degraded conditions rather than completely shutting down. Recovery from a degraded condition is often much faster than restarting a production line from a complete shutdown. The production output during a degraded condition may qualify as a lower-grade product. Improved operator effectiveness Procedural automation reduces the time an operator spends on repetitive tasks. Automated process actions can be programmed to take place at the optimal time for quality and efficiency, not only when the operator is available. In addition, the operator can use the time generated for more value-added activities, such as process improvement and avoiding abnormal situations. Higher retention and improved dissemination of knowledge The process industry faces serious challenges to maintain a knowledgeable workforce and to minimize variation in operator skills. Automated procedures based on best practices are an excel- lent way to retain the knowledge of the process and ensure consistent procedure execution. This is especially important for procedures that are not executed frequently. Improved training As knowledge is captured into best practices using automated procedures, the resulting documentation and code can be material for training new operators. It can be used to develop training simulator scenarios, so new operators can become qualified in a shorter time and experi- enced operators can stay up to date on their skills. Improved insight into the process By recording system and operator interactions, users can review and analyze data from every startup, shutdown, process transition, and abnormal condition recovery. This data analysis brings insight for continuous improvement opportunities in production efficiency and improved safety performance. More efficient change control A structured, modular approach to procedural automation minimizes production change control costs. Reduced costs of enterprise adaptation Once the standard structure for sequence control has been defined, implemented, and fully tested, it can be modularized into libraries of code, procedure, and documentation to allow easy cloning and replication with reduced maintenance requirements from one area to another and from one site to another within an organization. This also reduces dependence on the code's originator. Common definitions and terminology By defining and maintaining a procedural automation standard, engineering organizations have a common set of terms and definitions to describe the requirements for improvements and changes in procedural automation. This improves communications with engineering and procure- ment companies, system integrators, automation suppliers, and internal company departments. ISA106 benefits

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