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MAR-APR 2019

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12 INTECH MARCH/APRIL 2019 WWW.ISA.ORG COVER STORY the opposite end of the spectrum is that if all of these devices are intercon- nected to your own control networks, then you really need to take a look at bringing the data in via a protected enclave, i.e., a section of an internal network that is subdivided from the rest of the network, much like we do with roaming Wi-Fi-enabled operator- interface solutions, for example. 5G wireless A digital transformation requires in- creased connectivity and data trans- ference, and 5G wireless can satisfy this demand. Process automation systems today primarily rely on hard - wired networks for communications, particularly Ethernet, but to achieve the goals of new digital initiatives, like Industry 4.0 and IIoT, there are in creas- ing bandwidth requirements. In addi- tion to plant automation, 5G wireless capabilities are suited for linking pro - cess sensors and instruments to busi- ness enterprise systems. Previous generations of mobile net- works predominantly addressed con- sumers for voice and SMS in 2G, Web browsing in 3G, and higher-speed data and video streaming in 4G. The tran - sition from 4G to 5G will better serve consumers and industries alike. New 5G wireless technologies provide the network characteristics manufactur - ing requires, including high band- width, connection density, low latency, and high reliability to support critical applications. Mobile 5G technology will allow higher flexibility, lower cost, and shorter lead times for factory floor production reconfiguration, layout changes, and alterations. It is not necessary to wait for com- mercial wireless carriers to implement 5G before manufacturers can take ad- vantage of these benefits. Production plants are already implementing 5G for in-house communications. A number of 5G industrial applica- tions were demonstrated at the 2018 Hannover Fair, including an extremely impressive concept of deterministic, high-speed coordinated motion over 5G wireless communications. The 2019 Hannover Fair will have multiple pavil - ions showcasing 5G in manufacturing applications and educational sessions on the topic. How do you characterize new cybersecurity challenges created by 5G, and do you have any advice for users? Kling: When it comes to industrial operations, 5G feeds the IoT beast. In part, the definition of IoT is a connected device. With the increased bandwidth and security of coming 5G networks, there is a promise of many new vertical solutions. As a result, availability (resist jamming), integrity (protect from sig- nal corruption and man-in-the-middle replays), and confidentiality all bear a heightened importance. 5G will be in places not really thought of previously. Yes, the SCADA [supervisory control and data acquisition] pipeline ex- amples already exist, but imagine 5G- enabled drones running continuous thermal imaging of a plant. They could quickly isolate problems that would have been difficult to locate previously. Uniquely, everybody has access to this transport layer. In 3G/4G tech- nologies, jamming or "smart" jamming was always a concern. 5G has attacked this problem, making the wireless stan- dard more resilient to jamming. The bottom line is that when it comes to 5G—similarly to the IoT ramp up—5G will enable many new solutions. Like IoT, its use must be tempered with an appropriate understanding of the risks involved. Our challenge will be to use it securely and appropriately. Edwards: I pretty much agree with what Andy has said. I hadn't thought of a lot of those things, but from a security perspective, I view 5G as just another transport layer. If the 5G vendors "get it right" with security and bake it into the implementations from the begin- ning, then it will be less of an issue for the end user. Cloud computing Cloud computing using third-party off- site providers is growing in popularity as a technology beneficial for indus- trial automation. The origin of the term "cloud computing" is unclear. In some sense, it is descriptive of something off in the distance over the Internet. We are just not sure where or what is storing in- formation and performing computing. Some claim the term was used in inter- nal documents at Compaq Computer in 1996. Others suggest the term was first commercially used in 2006 when Google and Amazon began using "cloud com- puting" to describe the new approach to access software, computer power, and files over the Web instead of from local servers or a desktop computer. Whatever the history, cloud comput- ing, or "cloud" for short, is now a com- mon term. Pictures of local computers networked to the image of a cloud in presentations and literature have be - come popularized. The National Insti- tute of Standards and Technology (NIST) defines cloud computing as "a model for enabling convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of con - figurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applica - tions, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction." NIST also defines essential characteristics of cloud computing: On-demand self-service A user can unilaterally provision com- puting capabilities, such as server time and network storage, as needed au to - matically without requiring human interaction with each service provider. Broad network access Capabilities are available over the net- work and accessed through standard mechanisms (i.e., Web services) that promote use by various platforms (e.g., mobile phones, tablets, laptops, and workstations). Resource pooling The cloud provider's computing re- sources are pooled to serve multiple consumers using a multitenant model, with different physical and virtual re - sources dynamically assigned and reas- signed according to user demand. There is a sense of location independence in that the customer generally has no con - trol over or knowledge of the exact loca-

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