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MAR-APR 2019

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32 INTECH MARCH/APRIL 2019 WWW.ISA.ORG AUTOMATION IT ogy. The most well known is the seven- layer ISO/OSI model, which is used as a reference model for network protocols. The advantage of using such models is a shared understanding of the function of every layer/element and the defined interfaces between the layers. Important characteristics RAMI 4.0 defines a service-oriented architecture (SOA) where application components provide services to the other components through a commu- nication protocol over a network. The basic principles of SOA are indepen- dent of vendors, products, and tech- nologies. The goal is to break down complex processes into easy-to-grasp packages, including data privacy and information technology (IT) security. ZVEI characterizes the changing manufacturing systems. The current "Old World Industry 3.0" manufactur- ing system characteristics are: l hardware-based structure l functions bound to hardware l hierarchy-based communication l isolated product The "New World: Industry 4.0" manu- facturing system characteristics are: l flexible systems and machines l functions distributed throughout the network l participants interact across hierar- chy levels l communication among all partici- pants l product part of the network l RAMI 4.0 structure RAMI 4.0 consists of a three-di men- sional coordinate system that de- scribes all crucial aspects of Industry 4.0. In this way, complex interrelations are broken down into smaller and sim - pler clusters. "Hierarchy Levels" axis On the right horizontal axis are hier- archy levels from IEC 62264, the in- ternational standards series for enter- prise IT and control systems. These hierarchy levels represent the differ - ent functionalities within factories or facilities. (Note that the IEC 62243 standard is based upon ANSI/ISA-95 .) To represent the Industry 4.0 environ - ment, these functionalities have been expanded to include work pieces, la - beled "Product," and the connection to the Internet of Things and services, labeled "Connected World." "Life Cycle Value Stream" axis The left horizontal axis represents the life cycle of facilities and products, based on IEC 62890, Life-cycle manage- ment for systems and products, used in industrial-process measurement, con- trol, and automation. Furthermore, a distinction is made between "types" and "instances." A "type" becomes an "instance" when design and prototyp- ing have been completed and the actu- al product is being manufactured. The Implement communications systems safely and securely in automation and control environments Gain a solid understanding of: • legacy and advanced communications systems • advances in communication technology • cybersecurity methods and standards (including ANSI/ISA/IEC 62443) • SCADA, DCS, and fieldbus systems • Ethernet and router technologies • wireless communication Order your copy today at www.isa.org/datacom Order your copy today at www.isa.org/fluidmechanics How do valves control your process? Reflecting the latest knowledge of fluid mechanics and acoustics relating to control valves, this practical, best-practice reference guide explains the function and purpose of control valves along with their various types, features, and limitations.

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