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MAR-APR 2017

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28 INTECH MARCH/APRIL 2017 WWW.ISA.ORG SYSTEM INTEGRATION replacement for current SCADA/DCS/ ICS architectures. It is provided simply as an illustration of an integrated and collaborative IIoT architecture. The Industrial Internet Consor- tium—like many similar groups—has developed a conceptual architecture that presents one "view" of IIoT, shown in figure 5. Again, where do standards come into play? Maciej Kranz of Cisco states, "The IoT World Forum has been working on a common model to drive interoperabil - ity across all IoT components: devices and controllers, networks, edge com - puting, data storage, applications, and analytics. The IoT World Forum Refer - ence Model organizes these compo- nents into layers and provides a graphi- cal representation of IoT and all that it entails." Kranz concludes with this bold statement, "The IoT World Forum Refer - ence Model opens the door to an 'Open IoT' system, with guaranteed interoper - ability." (Readers who are knowledge- able or who participated in the ISA95 and ISA100 development processes can attest to the difficulty of achieving sim - ply stated goals, such as "guaranteed in- teroperability.") The reference model is presented in figure 6. Cybersecurity, IoT, and the attack surface The introduction of IoT devices, in particu- lar IP-addressable devices, into an indus- trial setting most assuredly increases the number of elements/devices that are vul- nerable to cyberattack. The situation was illustrated in the December 2016 distrib- uted denial of service (DDoS) cy berattack attributed to IoT devices first being infected with malware, then being coordinated in the DDoS attack on major Internet routers. Does this warrant avoidance of IoT de - vices in an industrial setting? As directors and directors-elect of two of ISA's techni - cal divisions, the authors of this paper an- swer that question with a resounding "no." However, such cybersecurity instances do illustrate the need for a change from the decades-old defense-in-depth ISA-99 (ISA/ IEC 62443) model. In a future article, we will present a bold design for a cybersecure net - work architecture appropriate for 2017 and beyond. Lower costs, enhanced features, and higher cyberrisks—these are what we can expect as IoT and IIoT converge. Standards and guidelines can help carve an orderly path forward. A path for IoT in industry will be needed, because infrastructure initia - tives will likely invite rapid IIoT deployment. ISA's Communications Division and Test & Measurement Division currently have a joint working group focused on IIoT with the associated examination of functional and operational security if and when IoT devices are deployed into a control system. Although the term "cyber" is often over- used, it truly applies in the world of IIoT; however, new sensor and control capabili- ties bring enhanced attack surfaces in the world of cybersecurity. RESOURCES "Where the smart is" www.economist.com/news/business/ 21700380-connected-homes-will-take-lon- ger-materialise-expected-where-smart Internet of Things with Python www.packtpub.com/hardware-and-creative/ internet-things-python "IoT Meets Standards, Driving In- teroperability and Adoption" http://blogs.cisco.com/digital/iot-meets-stan- dards-driving-interoperability-and-adoption "Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT)— Conceptual Architecture" www.infosysblogs.com/bigdata/2016/07/ industrial_internet_of_things_.html The Amazon Way on IoT: 10 Principles for Every Leader from the World's Leading Internet of Things Strategies www.amazon.com/Amazon-Way-IoT-Princi- ples-Strategies/dp/0692739009 "Deterministic Ethernet for Industrial Internet of Things" By D. Sexton, ISA Communications Division Sympo- sium, Washington DC, May 2014 (www.isa.org) The Internet of Risky Things http://shop.oreilly.com/product/ 0636920052784.do Performance-based Fire and Gas Systems Engineering Handbook www.isa.org/fireandgas Figure 5. An example of conceptual IIoT architecture from the Industrial Internet Consortium Source: Infosys Figure 4. An example of multifunction IoT architecture Industrial Internet of Things – Conceptual architecture Fog computing Local applications Processor IIoT applications Visualization Application data store Remote applications Build and train models Permanent store On-premise/cloud computing Models Gateway Security Collector Processor Channels Devices Transient storage Industrial control systems Machine Human Out In

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