NOV-DEC 2017

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FACTORY AUTOMATION INTECH NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2017 23 4). Automation and enterprise vendors, as well as international standards groups (i.e., IEC, ISO, OAGi, OPEN Group/OPA, ISA, OPC UA, and In dustrial Internet Consortium), have adjusted their offerings to address various approaches to the IIoT and smart manufacturing require- ments. The common theme in new technol- ogy, solutions, and standards development is the ability to interoperate over loosely coupled publish-and-subscribe systems (including in- telligent devices and machines) with flexible, lightweight messages. Most vendors and standards groups are fo- cused on the exchange mechanics per the open systems interconnection (OSI) model's layers 2-7 or the TCP/IP model's four layers for the Internet exchanges. However, there has been a great lack of focus on the business document format and schema standards for the data ex - change. Without this focus, data integrity is ulti- mately compromised in deployment, life-cycle change, analytics, and report elements. Over the past four years, the ISA95 committee has been directly addressing evolving requirements by updating its data exchange object models (Part 2's operations and Part 4's work informa - tion models). Specifically, the smart manufac- turing and IIoT requirements are ad dressed with contextualized data exchanges between the large installed base of distributed, heteroge - neous systems in plants and equipment (100+) and in support of supply-chain operations. In 2015, with the formation of the Process-Centric Messaging working group by the ISA95 com mit- tee, the new Operations Event Model (up dated Part 2, approved September 2017) and Notifica - tion Model (updated Part 5, approval in 2018) contextualize all data associated with an op- erations event into a single publish-subscribe message. These models are "transport agnostic" to work with any existing and new IIoT protocol technologies. "Knowledge" engineered Beyond the marketing rhetoric and technical explanations of smart manufacturing and IIoT, the underlying requirement to make the smart device, machine, or system deliver value is the engineering of the "knowledge worker" for the Industry 4.0 cyber-physical connection. The cy ber-physical connection is engineered by pro- viding on-shift information exchanges directly to the available assigned specialist for each op- erations event. The cyber-physical connection supports intraplant same-shift troubleshoot- ing, problem solving, and situational decision making in real time. The knowledge work- er correctly executes his or her engineered response to each ab- normal event before a series of costly abnor- mal events cascades into large losses of ca - pability, capacity, and margin per unit. Exchange of data without context is valueless. It further dete- riorates value as corrupted data. As shown in figure 1, the exchanged data has its greatest value when exchanged within the context of the operations situation or event at the knowl- edge stage. In the information stage, the smart device/machine/system collects data and con- textualizes it into operations patterns to create accurate information by applying root-cause analysis, contextualized reporting, or analyt- ics (operation or financial). To avoid operating a plant or supply chain in the review mirror of pe riodic reports or analytics, information must be actionable. This happens through engineer- ing the workflow responses of the knowledge worker as the assigned specialist to each ab- normal (and normal) operations event. When a known operations pattern has an alert or alarm, the smart device/machine/system directs the right response alternatives to the available on- shift knowledge worker to prioritize and execute the corrective action. As the engineered responses of the knowl- edge stage evolve with practice, the organi- zation derives principles to understand and predict behavior. As smart systems are further developed to characterize a plant's operations patterns and response results, the understand - FAST FORWARD l Real-time knowledge is required for Industry 4.0 end-to-end process management. l The Operations Event Model and the Notification Model contextualize all data associated with an operations event into a single publish-subscribe message. l The operations event message is a very powerful way to communicate event information. Knowledge Information Data Understand preventive actions: predictive models Understanding Understand corrective actions: engineered workflow responses Understand patterns: Root causes to their situation and use cases Understand relationships: reason codes/alarms Intelligent manufacturing Actionable context Figure 1. Engineered responses for the Industry 4.0 cyber-physical connection

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