MAR-APR 2018

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COVER STORY 14 INTECH MARCH/APRIL 2018 WWW.ISA.ORG and their efficacy for reducing en ergy consumption. Transport The transportation and logistics sectors have been among the first to gain cost and energy consumption savings from the IoT. Radio frequency identification (RFID), introduced in the early 2000s, is finally realizing its initial potential— giv ing some indication of how long it takes these technologies to mature. RFID technology is used in many road toll and weigh-in-motion systems, so vehicles do not have to come to a stop and accelerate back to cruising speed, saving fuel and increasing efficiency. Fuel savings of 4 percent have been estimated for an RFID toll collection system in comparison to a manual system. Satellite guidance with real-time cor- rection for traffic is a form of IoT efficien- cy that is almost universally recogniz- able. Reported savings of between 12 and 16 percent have been demonstrated in independent studies, with an additional 4 percent anticipated when optimizing for fuel consumption rather than travel time. Real-time satellite tracking and telematics of commercial vehicles save between 5 and 10 percent by ensuring the monitored drives follow safe and ef - ficient driving techniques. These savings do not include any other productivity or fleet optimization gains. Buildings IoT is progressing to a new type of smart building that better responds to the con - cerns of owners and managers about energy consumption. IoT enables opera - tional systems that have more accurate and useful information for improving operations and saving the most energy for tenants. Focusing on heating, ventila - tion, and air conditioning (HVAC), light- ing, and some types of electrical loads, it is reasonable to expect savings in the range of 10 to 25 percent when imple - menting proactive energy management programs in midsized buildings. Residential buildings The IoT is readily recognizable in smart utility meters, which promise to bring "time of use" billing and load shaping and which were previously reserved for large consumers, to residential customers. However, even before this promise can be realized, smart meters have been used to provide data to in-home displays, so cus- tomers can monitor energy use and re- ceive feedback on cost. Trials conducted in various countries have demonstrated savings between 5 to 10 percent from in- home displays for residential customers. Smart thermostats are domestic heat- ing and cooling control systems that learn the user's pattern of behaviors to optimize energy consumption and comfort levels. Savings of approximately 4 percent in electricity and 7 percent in gas consumption have been reported from pilot studies. Additional savings are anticipated as additional connectiv -

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